Churchill

Churchill

 
 
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“Churchill” redirects here. For other uses, see Churchill (disambiguation) and Winston Churchill (disambiguation).
This British person’s barrelled surname is Spencer-Churchill, but they are known by the surname Churchill.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament (MP). Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was a member of the Liberal Party.

The Right Honourable
Sir Winston Churchill
KG OM CH TD DL FRS RA
Churchill wearing a suit, standing and holding a chair
The Roaring Lion, an iconic portrait by Yousuf Karsh, taken at the Canadian Parliament, December 1941
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
In office
26 October 1951 – 5 April 1955
Monarch
George VI
Elizabeth II
Deputy
Anthony Eden
Preceded by
Clement Attlee
Succeeded by
Anthony Eden
In office
10 May 1940 – 26 July 1945
Monarch
George VI
Deputy
Clement Attlee (1942–1945)
Preceded by
Neville Chamberlain
Succeeded by
Clement Attlee
Leadership positions
Leader of the Opposition
In office
26 July 1945 – 26 October 1951
Monarch George VI
Prime Minister Clement Attlee
Preceded by Clement Attlee
Succeeded by Clement Attlee
Leader of the Conservative Party
In office
9 November 1940 – 6 April 1955
Preceded by Neville Chamberlain
Succeeded by Anthony Eden
Ministerial offices
1939–1952
Minister of Defence
In office
28 October 1951 – 1 March 1952
Preceded by Manny Shinwell
Succeeded by The Earl Alexander of Tunis
In office
10 May 1940 – 26 July 1945
Preceded by The Lord Chatfield (Coordination of Defence)
Succeeded by Clement Attlee
First Lord of the Admiralty
In office
3 September 1939 – 11 May 1940
Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
Preceded by The Earl Stanhope
Succeeded by A. V. Alexander
Ministerial offices
1908–1929
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
6 November 1924 – 4 June 1929
Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by Philip Snowden
Succeeded by Philip Snowden
Secretary of State for the Colonies
In office
13 February 1921 – 19 October 1922
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by The Viscount Milner
Succeeded by The Duke of Devonshire
Secretary of State for Air
In office
10 January 1919 – 13 February 1921
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by William Weir
Succeeded by Frederick Guest
Secretary of State for War
In office
10 January 1919 – 13 February 1921
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by The Viscount Milner
Succeeded by Laming Worthington-Evans
Minister of Munitions
In office
17 July 1917 – 10 January 1919
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by Christopher Addison
Succeeded by Andrew Weir
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
In office
25 May 1915 – 25 November 1915
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
Preceded by Edwin Montagu
Succeeded by Herbert Samuel
First Lord of the Admiralty
In office
24 October 1911 – 25 May 1915
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
Preceded by Reginald McKenna
Succeeded by Arthur Balfour
Secretary of State for the Home Department
In office
19 February 1910 – 24 October 1911
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
Preceded by Herbert Gladstone
Succeeded by Reginald McKenna
President of the Board of Trade
In office
12 April 1908 – 14 February 1910
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
Preceded by David Lloyd George
Succeeded by Sydney Buxton
Parliamentary offices
Member of Parliament
for Woodford
In office
5 July 1945 – 15 October 1964
Preceded by Constituency established
Succeeded by Constituency abolished
Member of Parliament
for Epping
In office
29 October 1924 – 5 July 1945
Preceded by Leonard Lyle
Succeeded by Leah Manning
Member of Parliament
for Dundee
In office
24 April 1908 – 15 November 1922
Serving with Alexander Wilkie
Preceded by
Edmund Robertson
Alexander Wilkie
Succeeded by
Edwin Scrymgeour
E. D. Morel
Member of Parliament
for Manchester North West
In office
8 February 1906 – 24 April 1908
Preceded by William Houldsworth
Succeeded by William Joynson-Hicks
Member of Parliament
for Oldham
In office
24 October 1900 – 12 January 1906
Preceded by Walter Runciman
Succeeded by John Albert Bright
Personal details
Born
Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill
30 November 1874
Blenheim, Oxfordshire, England
Died
24 January 1965 (aged 90)
Kensington, London, England
Resting place
St Martin’s Church, Bladon
Political party
Conservative
(
1900–19041924–1964
)
Liberal
(1904–1924)
Spouse(s)
Clementine Hozier (m. 1908)
Children
DianaRandolphSarahMarigoldMary
Parents
Lord Randolph Churchill
Jennie Jerome
Education
Harrow School
Royal Military College, Sandhurst
Signature

Military service
Allegiance
United Kingdom
Branch/service
British Army
United Kingdom Territorial Army
Years of service
1893–1924
Rank
See list
Commands
6th Battalion,
Royal Scots Fusiliers
Battles/wars
Mahdist War
Second Boer War
First World War
Awards
See list
Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire to a wealthy, aristocratic family. He joined the British Army in 1895, and saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. Elected an MP in 1900, initially as a Conservative, he defected to the Liberals in 1904. In H. H. Asquith’s Liberal government, Churchill served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, and First Lord of the Admiralty, championing prison reform and workers’ social security. During the First World War, he oversaw the Gallipoli Campaign; after it proved a disaster, he resigned from government and served in the Royal Scots Fusiliers on the Western Front. In 1917, he returned to government under David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, then as Secretary of State for War and Air, and finally for the Colonies, overseeing the Anglo-Irish Treaty and Britain’s Middle East policy. After two years out of Parliament, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley Baldwin’s Conservative government, returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move widely seen as creating deflationary pressure and depressing the UK economy.

Out of office during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in calling for British rearmament to counter the growing threat from Nazi Germany. At the outbreak of the Second World War he was re-appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. In 1940 he became prime minister, replacing Neville Chamberlain. Churchill oversaw British involvement in the Allied war effort against Germany and the Axis powers, resulting in victory in 1945. His wartime leadership was widely praised, although acts like the Bombing of Dresden and his wartime response to the Bengal famine generated controversy. After the Conservatives’ defeat in the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition. Amid the developing Cold War with the Soviet Union, he publicly warned of an “iron curtain” of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. Re-elected Prime Minister in 1951, his second term was preoccupied with foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, and a UK-backed Iranian coup. Domestically his government emphasised house-building and developed a nuclear weapon. In declining health, Churchill resigned as prime minister in 1955, although he remained an MP until 1964. Upon his death in 1965, he was given a state funeral.

Widely considered one of the 20th century’s most significant figures, Churchill remains popular in the UK and Western world, where he is seen as a victorious wartime leader who played an important role in defending Europe’s liberal democracy from the spread of fascism. Also praised as a social reformer and writer, among his many awards was the Nobel Prize in Literature. Conversely, his imperialist views and comments on race, as well as his sanctioning of human rights abuses in the suppression of anti-imperialist movements seeking independence from the British Empire, have generated considerable controversy.

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